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A report estimates about , children aged between 5 and 14 were working in Morocco. Agriculture and domestic services are the predominant employers. Young girls, locally called as petites bonnes little maids , are sent to work as live in domestic servants, many aged 10 or less. These petites bonnes come from very poor families, face conditions of involuntary servitude, including long hours without breaks, absence of holidays, physical, verbal and sexual abuse, withheld wages and even restrictions on their movement.

They are denied education. These children survive by selling cigarettes, begging, shining shoes, washing cars and working as porters and packers in ports. The Ministry of Planning in Morocco estimates that there are between 60, and , petites bonnes in the country. Additionally, rural parents do not believe that an education or a diploma of any sort can help their girls find a job. In , there were about 15 million child labourers younger than age 14 in Nigeria. Many of these worked in hazardous conditions and for long hours.

Poverty was the main driver of child labour, and the income of these children was a major part of their impoverished families income. Vast majority of child labour in Nigeria worked in agriculture and semi-formal or informal economy. Domestic servants were the least visible form of child labour, and often sexually harassed.

Child labour and slavery in modern society | Emerald Insight

Midst informal enterprises in semipublic places, children were often observed as mechanics and bus conductors. About 6 million of Nigeria's children do not go to school at all. In the current conditions, these children do not have the time, energy or resources to go to school. ILO estimates Rwanda has , child workers. Of these, , are thought to be involved in the worst forms of child labour and 60, are child domestic workers.

The government of Zambia estimates there are some , child workers in the country. Many are employed in informal mining operations. The informal sectors witnessing the worst form of child labour include cotton plantations, tobacco, fishing, tea, coffee and charcoal.

Child labour is common in mining. However, this is witnessed in small artisanal and traditional mines, where the children extract emeralds, amethyst, aquamarines, tourmalines and garnets. Child labour is also present in mines of lead, zinc and copper ores. They do not wear any protective equipment to protect their eyes or face or body; injuries are common. Child trafficking for purposes of hazardous labour is prevalent in Zambia.

Children in agriculture and domestic service are exchanged for money, goods and gifts to family members. Zambia has strict laws against trafficking and child labour. However, implementation and enforcement of its laws has proven to be difficult. According to ILO, child labour in Zambia is a coping strategy for the children and families when adult breadwinners die, fall ill, or when families are simply unable to make ends meet. International Labor Organization ILO stated that first of all, poverty is the greatest single force driving children into the workplace.


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Nigeria , for example, is now an active member of IPEC. Nigeria's Child Rights Act is now part of its Labour Act, and it prohibits exploitative labour from children. Some states, like Anambra , have also banned children from working during school hours. South Africa has made it a criminal offence to employ a child under the age of 15, except with a permit from the Department of Labour to employ children in the performing arts. Sections 43 through 47 of its Employment Act also makes it illegal to employ children aged 15 to 18 if the work is inappropriate for their age or something that places them at risk.

Kenya passed a Children's Act in The law also forbids hiring anyone less than age of 18 for military or in any armed conflict. Ghana , as another example, forbids child labour. Section 87 of its Children's Act forbids any person from employing a chiId in exploitative labour, or in any engagement that deprives the child of its health, education or development.

Section 88 prohibits anyone from employing any child at night, that is between the hours of eight o'clock in the evening and six o'clock in the morning. The Act's section 89 to 90 allow children above the age of 13 to engage in light work, and those aged over 15 non-hazardous work. While substantial legislation is now in place in almost all of Africa, legal enforcement remains a challenge. ILO has a number of projects in Africa that seek to reduce, and ultimately eliminate child labour in Africa.

This project, started in , aims at worst forms of child labour in west Africa. It has two main components: the first will support national efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labour, while the second aims at mobilizing sub-regional policy makers and improving sub-regional cooperation for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour among all fifteen member States of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS. The regional office is located in Kampala, Uganda. A report in claims it made a difference in the lives of thousands of children in this region of Africa.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Child labour in Nigeria. Main article: Child labour in Swaziland. Main article: Child labour in Tanzania. Retrieved Geneva: International Labour Office. Africa Recovery. World Development. Development Southern Africa. Journal of African Economies.

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ILO, Geneva. Child Labor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lynne Rienner Publications. The World of Child Labor. Anthropology of Work Review. Human Rights Watch. April 15, Ware III University of North Carolina Press. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. Bloomberg L. Archived from the original PDF on The Guardian.

Department of Labor" PDF. Nordic Journal of African Studies. United Nations. Ministry of Planning, Morocco. ILO, United Nations. The World Bank. Department of Labour, Republic of South Africa. Yale University. Child labour in Africa. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from November Articles with permanently dead external links. Namespaces Article Talk. ETI members are also making progress on helping make workplaces safer, encouraging suppliers to pay workers their statutory entitlements, and reducing the amount of excessive overtime people have to work.

However, we have yet to see substantive progress on some critical areas, including protecting workers' rights to organise themselves and bargain collectively with management. Child labour is never acceptable. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Convention on the worst forms of child labour clearly distinguish between child labour, which refers to harmful forms of work which deny children opportunities to fulfil their other rights, such as education, and child work, which is unlikely to damage educational opportunities.

This kind of work might include children helping out with their parents.

Child Labor, Family Income, and the Uruguay Round

The ILO and the ETI Base Code state that a child is any person younger than 18 years of age, and that 15 is the minimum age at which a child may be employed, unless local minimum age law stipulates a higher age for work or mandatory schooling, in which case the higher age shall apply. If however, local minimum age law is set at 14 years of age in accordance with developing country exceptions under ILO Convention No.


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    A global scourge - but signs of progress Retailers and buying companies face huge challenges in tackling child labour. Large families require a variety of incomes to feed their members. Agricultural jobs pay by the amount of produce picked. This encourages families to bring more children into the field to help collect farmed goods. It is cheaper to pay small children because they are less likely to complain than adults.

    Poor families can't afford to send their children to school. Many families around the world are unfamiliar with the rights of their children and deem it acceptable to send children to work.

    Families think that school won't help their children survive Migrant children don't live in one place long enough to attend school; instead they work in the fields with their parents.